Vandana

Thursday March 30, 2023

Gatha 1 - namaskara (namaskaara)
Gatha 2 - tisarana (tisara.na)
Gatha 3 - buddhaguna (buddhagu.na)
Gatha 4 - dhammaguna (dhammagu.na)
Gatha 5 - sanghaguna (sa^nghagu.na)
Gatha 6 - blessing

 

Gatha 1 - namaskara (namaskaara)

Gāthā Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation

Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammāsaṃbuddhassa

Translation:

Homage to Him, Blessed One, Arahant, truly and completely Awakened One.

***

Sentence structure:
List of Abbreviations

Namo         tassa     bhagavato     arahato     sammā-saṃ-buddhassa
|                    |               |                 |               |         |             |
N.n.         Pron.m.      N.m.        Adj.m.       Adv.   Pref.      N.m.
Nom.Sg.   Dat.Sg.     Dat.Sg.      Dat.Sg.          |         |        Dat.Sg.
|                    |               |                 |               |         |_______|
|                    |               |                 |               |_________|
|                    |               |_________|_____________|
|                    |______________________|
|_____________________|



Vocabulary and Grammar:
List of Abbreviations

namonama-, N.n., Nom.Sg. = namo: veneration, adoration, salute, homage.

tassatad-, Pron.: that, masculine form: so-. Dat.Sg. = tassa: to him. 

bhagavatobhagavant-, N.m.: Blessed One (epithet of the Buddha, possessive form of the word bhaga-, N.m.: good fortune, happiness, prosperity. Bhaga- is derived from the verb root bhaj-, to share. Thus bhagavant means literally "having good fortune"). Dat.Sg. = bhagavato: To the Blessed One.

List of Abbreviations

arahatoarahant-: Adj.: literally: deserving, worthy. Derived (pr.p.) from the verb root arah-, to deserve. Means one, who has attained Nirvana. Usually not translated or explained as Perfected One. Dat.Sg.: arahato: to the arahant.  

sammāsaṃbuddhassasammāsaṃbuddha-, N.m.: truly and completely Awakened One. Denotes the Buddha Shakyamuni. A compound of two words:
          sammā: Adv.: properly, rightly, as it should be, truly.
          saṃbuddha-, Adj.: completely awakened. It is a p.p. of the verb sam+budh-, to awaken completely. Prefix sam- denotes the completeness of the action, "together", "wholy". The verb budh- means to wake up.
Dat.Sg. of the compound = sammāsaṃbuddhassa.

List of Abbreviations

    The first word (namo) is in the nominative case. Nominative is used for the subject of the sentence or its attributes. It is the answer that we get to the question "Who?" or "What?".

    All the following words are in the dative case. It expresses the purpose for which the particular action is done or the person to whom something is given or for whom is something being done. It is the answer to the question "To (for) whom?" or "To (for) what?".

    We can note the absence of the verb in this sentence. It is quite usual in Pali. No verb is actually needed - some form of the verb "to be" is implied in these cases. Here: Homage [be] to him, to the Blessed One, to the Arahant, to the truly and completely Awakened One. As we can see, the verb is not necessary even in English.



Commentary:

    This gātha is a homage to the Buddha. It is called "namaskāra", which can be translated as "greeting" or "salutation". It is used every day by the followers of the Buddha, as an expression of faith, affirmation of one's goal (to attain nirvana) and remembering of Buddha's virtues, so that one's determination to practice will grow.

    These epithets are the most usual ones of those used to describe the Buddha. Of these three (bhagavant, arahant, sammāsaṃbuddha) two are used only for the Buddha, namely bhagavant and sammāsaṃbuddha. Why is bhagavant used only for Buddha? It is an extremely polite title, used for gods and the most venerable people. And in Buddhism, the Buddha is of course the most venerable one - thus this epithet applies to him.

    With sammāsaṃbuddha, the situation is clearer. Only the Buddha can be described as truly and completely awakened, as his disciples learned from him and differ in some details- namely they are not able to teach the Dharma as well as the Buddha can, to teach every person exactly the lesson he or she needs. The sammāsaṃbuddha realizes the awakenment by himself, without a teacher and teaches it to the whole world. Disciples (sāvaka) can also reach the nirvana (and there is no qualitative difference between their awakenment and sammāsaṃbuddha's one), but they can do it only after hearing the sammāsaṃbuddha to proclaim the Dharma.

    Arahant is used for all beings, who have attained the Nirvana. It can denote a sammāsaṃbuddha as well as his disciple.

 

Gatha 2 - tisarana (tisara.na)

Gāthā Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation

List of Abbreviations


buddhaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi

dhammaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi

saṅghaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi



Translation:

I take refuge in the Buddha.
I take refuge in the Teaching.
I take refuge in the Community.



Sentence structure:
List of Abbreviations

buddhaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi
|                   |              |
N.m.          N.n.     V.act.in.
Acc.Sg.    Acc.Sg.  3.Sg.pres.
|                   |________|
|______________|

List of Abbreviations

dhammaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi
|                     |               |
N.m.           N.n.       V.act.in.
Acc.Sg.     Acc.Sg.    3.Sg.pres.
|                     |________|
|________________|

List of Abbreviations

saṅghaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi
|                  |               |
N.m.         N.n.      V.act.in.
Acc.Sg.   Acc.Sg.   3.Sg.pres.
|                  |________|
|______________|



Vocabulary and Grammar:
List of Abbreviations

buddhaṃbuddha-, Adj.: p.p. of the verb budh-, to awaken. Awakened One, Enlightened One. Here as a noun: a being who has attained nirvana. The historical Buddha Shakyamuni. Acc.Sg.: buddhaṃ.

saraṇaṃsaraṇa-, N.n.: refuge. Acc.Sg.: saraṇaṃ.

gacchāmi: verb gam-, to go. Here 1st person singular of active indicative, present tense: I go.

List of Abbreviations

dhammaṃdhamma-, N.m.: Buddha's Teaching. The Law. Derived from the verb dha-, to hold. Thus dhamma "holds the world together". Acc.Sg.: dhammaṃ.

saṅghaṃsaṅgha-, N.m.: community. The community of the Buddha's followers. It is of two kinds: the saṅgha of lay followers and the saṅgha of monks and nuns. Acc.Sg.: saṅghaṃ.

List of Abbreviations

    The first word (buddhaṃ) is in the accusative case. This case is used for object of the sentence and its attributes, for the object that undergoes the action of an active verb. It is an answer to the question "[See] whom?" "[Do] what?".

    As the second word (saraṇaṃ) is an attribute of the object, it is in the same case, namely the accusative. [I go] to the Buddha (buddhaṃ, accusative) to the refuge (saraṇaṃ, accusative).

    Last word (gacchāmi) is the verb. In this sentence it is necessary -- only when the verb is "to be" we can omit it. It is in the present tense (the action is happening now), indicative mood (the verb is indicating or simply relating something), active voice (the whole sentence is therefore active -- "I go"; it is not -- as is very common in Indian languages in passive -- "By me is gone"), first person (denoting "I" or "we") and singular number (the combination of first person and singular means that the subject of the sentence is "I").

    The second and third lines form separate sentences with the same structure as the first sentence.



Commentary:

    This is the "credo of Buddhism". It is called Threefold Refuge or tisaraṇa in Pali. It is by repeating these three sentences, that one officially becomes a Buddha's follower. It is usually recited every morning or as an opening part of a ceremony.

    By this phrase we take refuge in the Buddha -- we accept him as our teacher, as a highest authority for our life. We take refuge in his teaching -- in other words we accept his teaching as our guidance on the path towards awakenment. And we take refuge in the community of Buddha's followers -- the spiritual friends, who progress together with us and who can help us on our way.

 

Gatha 3 - buddhaguna (buddhagu.na)

Gāthā Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation

List of Abbreviations


Iti pi so bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsaṃbuddho

vijjācaraṇasaṃpanno sugato lokavidū

anuttarapurisadammasārathī

satthā devamanussānaṃ buddho bhagavā ti.



Translation:

Such is also the Blessed One: Arahant, truly and completely Awakened One,
endowed with knowledge and conduct, Well Gone, knowing the world,
the highest charioteer of people who can be led,
teacher of gods and humans, Awakened One, Blessed One.



Sentence structure:
List of Abbreviations

Iti         pi         so         bhagavā arahaṃ sammā+saṃ+buddho
|            |            |              |             |           |          |         |
Adv.   Adv.   Pron.m.     N.m.      N.m.    Adv.    Pref.   N.m.
|_______|      Nom.Sg.  Nom.Sg.  Nom.Sg.   |          |     Nom.Sg.
      |                  |________|             |           |          |_____|
      |______________|                     |           |________|
                  |                                   |__________|______________________
                  |________________________|

List of Abbreviations

vijjā+caraṇa+saṃpanno     su+gato         loka+vidū
|            |            |              |        |             |        |
N.f.    N.n.    Adj.m.     Pref. Adj.m.    N.m. Adj.m.
|______|       Nom.Sg.        |   Nom.Sg.      |   Nom.Sg.
     |___________|              |____|              |____|
________|________________|____________|_________________________

List of Abbreviations

an+uttara+purisa+damma+sārathī
|         |          |          |           |
neg. Adj.   N.m.    Adj.     N.m.
|_____|          |______|    Nom.Sg.
     |                    |_________|
     |________________|
__________|____________________________________________________

List of Abbreviations

satthā deva+manussānaṃ buddho     bhagavā     ti
|             |            |               |                 |            |
N.m.   N.m.     N.m.         N.m.          N.m.     part.
Nom.Sg. |       Gen.Pl.    Nom.Sg.      Nom.Sg.    |
|             |_______|              |                 |            |
|___________|                    |                 |             |
_____|__________________|_________|             |
                        |___________________________|



Vocabulary and Grammar:
List of Abbreviations

iti: Adv.: (sometimes written as ti) usually a particle, symbolizing the end of direct speech (in English that is expressed by quotation marks). Here rather as an adverb: such, thus.

pi: Adv.: (sometimes written as api) also, as well.

so: tad-, Pron.: that, masculine form: so-. Nom.Sg. = so.

bhagavābhagavant-, N.m.: Blessed One (epithet of the Buddha, possessive form of the word bhaga-, N.m.: good fortune, happiness, prosperity. Bhaga- is derived from the verb root bhaj-, to share. Thus bhagavant means literally "having good fortune").
Nom.Sg. = bhagavā.

List of Abbreviations

arahaṃarahant-, Adj.: literally: deserving, worthy. Derived (pr.p.) from the verb root arah-, to deserve. Means one, who has attained Nirvana. Usually not translated or explained as Perfected One. Nom.Sg. = arahaṃ.

sammāsaṃbuddhosammāsaṃbuddha-, N.m.: truly and completely Awakened One. Denotes the Buddha Shakyamuni. A compound of two words:
    sammā: Adv.: properly, rightly, as it should be, truly.
    saṃbuddha-, Adj.: completely awakened. It is a p.p. of the verb sam+budh-, to awaken completely. Prefix sam- denotes the completeness of the action, "together", "wholy". The verb budh- means to wake up.
Nom.Sg.m. of the compound = sammāsaṃbuddho.

List of Abbreviations

vijjācaraṇasaṃpanno: vijjācaraṇasaṃpanna-, Adj.: compound of:
    vijjācaraṇa-, N.n.: knowledge and conduct. This is itself a compound of:
        vijjā-, N.f.: knowledge, higher knowledge. Derived from the verb root vid- (to know, to find out).
        caraṇa-, N.n.: conduct, behaviour, acting. Derived from the verb root car- (to move, to go, to behave).
    saṃpanna-, Adj.: endowed with, possessed of; p.p. of the verb pad- (to go to, to fall to) preceded by the prefix sam- (denoting "together" or "completely").
Nom.Sg.m. of the whole compound = vijjācaraṇasaṃpanno.

sugato: sugata-, Adj.: Well-gone. An epithet of the Buddha. A p.p. of the verb gam- (to go) preceded by the prefix su- (well).
Nom.Sg.m. = sugato.

List of Abbreviations

lokavidūlokavidū-, Adj.: knowing the world. A compound of two words:
    loka-, N.m.: world
    vidū-, Adj.: clever, wise, knowing, skilled in.
Nom.Sg.m. of the compound = lokavidū.

anuttarapurisadammasārathīanuttarapurisadammasārathi-, N.m.: the highest charioteer of people who can be led. Let us first dissect this compound into its constituents:
    anuttara-, Adj.: highest. Literally: "to which there is no higher". It is composed of the word uttara- (uttara-, Adj.: higher) which is preceded by the negative prefix an-.
    purisadamma-, Adj.: person who can be led. Consists of:
        purisa-, N.m.: person, man
        damma-, Adj.: tamable, can or should be led. Ger. of the verb dam- (to tame, to
        restrain).
    sārathi-, N.m.: charioteer (probably from sa+ratha-ratha-, N.m.: chariot with the prefix sa-, with).
Purisa-damma-sārathi is therefore a "charioteer" or a leader of such people, who allow themselves to be led. The first part of the compound (anuttara-) is in some versions of this gāthā separated from this compound and forms one more characteristic of the Buddha just by itself (The highest, unsurpassed).
Nom.Sg. of the compound = anuttarapurisadammasārathī.

List of Abbreviations

satthāsatthar-, N.m.: teacher. Nom.Sg. = satthā.

devamanussānaṃdevamanussa-, N.m.: gods and people. The compound of:
    deva-, N.m.: god
    manussa-, N.m.: human being, person.
Gen.Pl. of the compound = devamanussānaṃ.

buddhobuddha-, Adj.: awakened. Here as a title: Awakened One. P.p. of the verb budh- (to awaken). Nom.Sg.m. = buddho.

bhagavābhagavant-, Adj.: see above.

ti: see above (iti).

List of Abbreviations

    We begin with the word "iti", which is usually used for marking the end of the direct speech. But here it means "thus" or "such".

    Next word is "pi" (also) which is also indeclinable.

    "So" (he) and "bhagavā" (Blessed One) form the subject of this sentence. They are both in nominative case. The verb of this sentence is the verb "to be" and it is again omitted.

    All the other words (except for the final "ti" which is just another form of "iti" and which here has its more usual role of marking the end of a list) are epithets of the Buddha and are all attributes of the subject. They are therefore also in nominative case.

    We can dissolve some of the compounds:

    Sammāsaṃbuddho could actually be written separated as sammā(truly) saṃbuddho (completely awakened). As sammā is an adverb, it is indcelinable.

    Vijjācaraṇasaṃpanno we can see as vijāya (with the knowledge, instrumental) caraṇena (with the conduct, instrumental) saṃpanno (endowed).

    Lokavidū is lokassa (of the world, genitive singular) vidū (knower).

    Anuttarapurisadammasārathī is anuttaro (highest, nominative singular) purisadamānaṃ (of the people who can be led, genitive plural) sārathī (charioteer).

    Devamanussānaṃ can be sepatarated as devānaṃ (of the gods) manussānaṃ (of the people).



Commentary:

    This gāthā is used as a part of the daily ceremony, right after the vandanā and the tisaraṇa. By this verse we enumerate the qualities of the Buddha, we remember what he means for our lives.

    He is an arahant, for he has reached the nirvana. He is also Truly and Completely Awakened One, he has reached the goal without the external help and taught the Dharma to all beings. (For further discussion of the differences between arahant and sammāsambuddha see verse 1).

    He possesses the "knowledge and conduct". By the knowledge is meant not only the knowledge of the goal (ie. Nirvana), but also other knowledge, namely so called Higher Spiritual Powers (abhiññā), Magical Powers (iddhi) and Insight (vipassanā). The conduct refers to his behavior, modesty, moral restraint, mindfulness etc.

    The epithet Sugata is used very often for the Buddha. It points to his happy and content life, to the fact, that he already happily reached the nirvana.

    He also knows the world, knows how it works, knows the personalities of the beings therein. He knows how to deal with the world and how exactly to teach the multitudes of living beings.

    He is the highest "charioteer" of those people, who can "be tamed". In other words, he is the leader of those, who allow themselves to be led, to be taught. The majority of the people easily understood this simile in the ancient times, when the horse and chariot were so common.

    He is the teacher of gods and people, which reminds us of the fact, that gods in Buddhism are just living beings, like people. Their life span is of course longer and they might have high powers, that we people don't have, but they are as mortal as we are. So they have to strive for reaching nirvana as well - and only a Buddha can teach them.

    He is a Buddha, Awakened One, who realized the nirvana here and now and teaches the way to it to multitudes.

    And he is blessed or happy (for more about this term see verse 1).

    Therefore by enumerating and remembering these qualities of the Buddha every day at the beginning of a ceremony, we keep in mind, what the Buddha means for us and for this world and can respect him as our highest teacher.


Gatha 4 - dhammaguna (dhammagu.na)

Gāthā Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation

List of Abbreviations


svākhāto bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko

ehipassiko opanayiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhī ti



Translation:

Well proclaimed is the Law by the Blessed One, visible in this world, immediate, invites everybody to come and see, leads to the goal, is to be understood individually be the wise ones.



Sentence structure:
List of Abbreviations

sv    +    ākhāto     bhagavatā     dhammo     sandiṭṭhiko     a+kāliko
|                |                 |                  |                  |              |        |
Pref.     Adj.m.         N.m.           N.m.         Adj.m.       neg.  Adj.m.
|          Nom.Sg.      Ins.Sg.        Nom.Sg.    Nom.Sg.         |    Nom.Sg.
|_________|                 |                  |                  |              |____|
        |______________|                   |                  |__________|_________________I.
                    |                                 |_______________|
                    |__________________________|
                                          |____________________________________________II.

List of Abbreviations

ehipassiko opanayiko paccattaṃ veditabbo     viññūhī     ti
      |               |                |               |                 |           |
Adj.m.      Adj.m.         Adv.       Adj.m.       Adj.m.     part.
Nom.Sg.  Nom.Sg.           |         Nom.Sg.      Ins.Pl.       |
      |               |                |               |_________|            |
      |               |                |_____________|                     |
I.__|________|_________________|                               |
II._____________________________________________|



Vocabulary and Grammar:
List of Abbreviations

svākhātosvākhāta-, Adj.: The word ākhāta-, Adj.: proclaimed (p.p. of the verb khā-, to say with the prefix ā-, forth, out to) with the prefix su- (well). The form sv- is due to the euphonic combination. Nom.Sg.m. = svākhāto.

bhagavatābhagavant-, N.m.: Blessed One (epithet of the Buddha, possessive form of the word bhaga-, N.m.: good fortune, happiness, prosperity. The word bhaga- is derived from the verb root bhaj-, to share. Thus bhagavant means literally "having good fortune").
Ins.Sg. = bhagavatā: By the Blessed One.

dhammodhamma-, N.m.: Buddha's Teaching. The Law. Derived from the verb dha-, to hold. Thus dhamma "holds the world together". Nom.Sg. = dhammo.

List of Abbreviations

sandiṭṭhikosandiṭṭhika-, Adj.: visible in this world. Derived from the word sandiṭṭhi-, N.f.: the visible world (futher analysed into diṭṭhi-, N.f. with the prefix saṃ-, together. The word diṭṭhi comes from the verbal root dis-, to see). The suffix -ka transforms the noun into an adjective. Nom.Sg.m. = sandiṭṭhiko.

akālikoakālika-, Adj.: immediate. The word kālika-, Adj. (gradual, slow, delayed; it is formed from the word kāla-, N.m., time) negated by the negative prefix a-. Nom.Sg.m. = akāliko.

List of Abbreviations

ehipassikoehipassika-, Adj.: inviting to come and see. This word has three segments:
    ehi, 2.Sg.act.imp. of the verb i- (to go) with the prefix ā- (towards): come!
    passi, 2.Sg.act.imp. of the verb dis- (to see): see!
    -ka, the denominative suffix, transforming these verbs into an adjective.
The literal meaning therefore is "come-and-see-ish", having the quality of [saying] "come!" and "see!".
Nom.Sg.m. = ehipassiko.

opanayikoopanayika-, Adj.: leading (to the goal, that is Nirvana). Derived from the verb nī- (to lead) with the prefix upa- (close, towards). Nom.Sg.m. = opanayiko.

List of Abbreviations

paccattaṃ: Adv.: individually. An adverbial form of:
    paccatta-, Adj.: separate, individual. A compound of:
        paṭi-, ind.: against, towards.
        attan-, N.m.: self.

veditabboveditabba-, Adj.: should be known. A gerundive of the verb vid-, to know. Nom.Sg.m. = veditabbo.

viññūhiviññū-, Adj.: wise, learned, intelligent. Derived from the verb ñā- (to know) with the prefix vi- (adding emphasis). Ins.Pl.m. = viññūhi. The form viññūhī, as seen in the verse, is due to euphonic combination viññūhi + iti = viññūhī ti.

ti: (another form of iti) a particle, symbolizing the end of direct speech (in English that is expressed by quotation marks) or the end of a list.

List of Abbreviations

    The subject of the sentence is dhammo (The Law). The verb "to be" is omitted, as happens a lot in Pali. The word svākhāto (well proclaimed, nominative singular) actually fulfills the role of a verb, it is an attribute to the missing verb "to be". The word bhagavatā (by the Blessed One, instrumental singular) is an attribute to svākhāto.

    All the other words are attributes to the subject. They are sandiṭṭhiko (visible in this world), akāliko (immediate), ehipassiko (inviting everybody to come and see), opanayiko (leading to the goal) and paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhi (to be understood individually be the wise ones). Except for the last one, they are single words (or compounds). They are in nominative singular.

    The last of these attributes is paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhi. The main attribute here is veditabbo (to be known). It is therefore also in nominative singular. It is a gerund, which is a verbal derovation meaning that the action should be done. It has an attribute viññūhi (by the wise ones), which is in instrumental plural. The adverb paccattaṃ (individually) forms an attribute to this phrase.

    The particle ti marks the end of the list of attributes.



Commentary:

    In this gāthā, there are enumerated the qualities of the Law (Dhamma), of Buddha's teaching. The Dhamma has been well preached (svākhāto), because it has no flaws, it has been preached fully and without anything missing.

    It is visible in this world (sandiṭṭhiko). We can reap the fruit in this very world, we do not have to wait for the fruits to same future life, or the other world. The results of meditation will come in this very life.

    It is immediate (akāliko). The results of our practice will come to us immediately, we do not have to wait for them to some distant future. As we become to practice the Dhamma, the fruit will come right away. Gradually, step by step we will be able to verify that the Way truly leads to the goal.

    It invites everybody to come and see (ehipassiko). The Dhamma invites us to "come and see". In other words, it invites all people to verify for themselves, that it really leads to the goal, that by practicing it, one can reach the Nirvana. It can not be forced on anybody, nobody can reach the goal just by blind faith. One must "come and see" - and make an effort on the Way to the goal.

    It leads to the goal (opanayiko). By following this teaching, by applying this method, by making an effort on the Way, we can certainly reach the goal and realize the Nirvana.

    It is to be understood individually be the wise ones (paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhi). Nobody can reach the Nirvana passively, just by praying or reading books. Everybody must individually practice it and make an effort. Deep insight into the Dhamma is necessary for realizing the goal. That insight will not come by itself, we must strive for it hard. It can not be realized as a result of some help by an external force. Nobody can "enlighten" us, we must do the work for ourselves. Of course, to realize this and to be able to proceed on the path, certain amount of wisdom is required, for a fool will never realize these truths and act accordingly.


Gatha 5 - sanghaguna (sa^nghagu.na)

Gāthā Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation

List of Abbreviations


supaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho

ujupaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho

ñāyapaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho

sāmīcipaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho

yadidaṃ cattāri purisayugāni aṭṭha purisapuggalā

esa bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho

āhuneyyo pāhuneyyo dakkhiṇeyyo añjalikaraṇiyo

anuttaraṃ puññakkhettaṃ lokassā ti



Translation:

The community of disciples of the Blessed One has well followed [the teaching].
The community of disciples of the Blessed One has followed the straight [path].
The community of disciples of the Blessed One has followed the methodical [path].
The community of disciples of the Blessed One has followed the correct [conduct in life].
Namely [there are] the four pairs of people, eight human characters.
This is the community of disciples of the Blessed One.
It is worthy of offerings, worthy of hospitality, worthy of gifts, worthy of salutation.
It is the unsurpassed field of merit for the world.



Sentence Structure:
List of Abbreviations

su+paṭipanno bhagavato sāvaka+saṅgho
|           |               |             |          |
pref. Adj.m.      N.m.       N.m.   N.m.
|      Nom.Sg.  Gen.Sg.        |     Nom.Sg.
|______|               |             |______|
      |                    |___________|
      |_________________|
                    |_________________________________________________

List of Abbreviations

uju+paṭipanno bhagavato sāvaka+saṅgho
|             |              |             |           |
Adj.  Adj.m.       N.m.      N.m.    N.m.
|      Nom.Sg.   Gen.Sg.        |      Nom.Sg.
|_______|              |              |______|
       |                    |___________|
       |_________________|
____________|________________________________________________

List of Abbreviations

ñāya+paṭipanno bhagavato sāvaka+saṅgho
|               |               |            |           |
N.m.   Adj.m.        N.m.     N.m.    N.m.
|        Nom.Sg.     Gen.Sg.      |    Nom.Sg.
|________|               |             |______|
       |                       |___________|
       |___________________|
_____________|_______________________________________________

List of Abbreviations

sāmīci+paṭipanno bhagavato sāvaka+saṅgho
|                 |               |             |           |
Adj.      Adj.m.        N.m.      N.m.    N.m.
|          Nom.Sg.     Gen.Sg.       |     Nom.Sg.
|_________|                |             |______|
        |                         |___________|
        |___________________|
______________|______________________________________________

List of Abbreviations

yadidaṃ cattāri purisa+yugāni     aṭṭha     purisa+puggalā
|                |          |          |             |            |            |
Adv.    Num.n.  N.m.    N.n.      Num.n.  N.m.     N.m.
|            Nom.      |     Nom.Pl.    Nom.       |       Nom.Pl.
|                |          |_____|              |            |_______|
|                |________|                   |__________|
|                       |_____________________|
|_______________________|
___________|_________________________________________________

List of Abbreviations

esa         bhagavato sāvaka+saṅgho
|                    |             |          |
Pron.         N.m.       N.m.   N.m.
Nom.Sg.  Gen.Sg.        |     Nom.Sg.
|                    |             |______|
|                    |__________|
|_________________|
___________|_________________________________________________

List of Abbreviations

āhuneyyo pāhuneyyo dakkhiṇeyyo añjali+karaṇiyo
|                     |                  |              |           |
Adj.m.      Adj.m.         Adj.m.       N.m.  Adj.m.
Nom.Sg.  Nom.Sg.      Nom.Sg.        |     Nom.Sg.
|                     |                  |              |______|
|____________|__________|__________|
_________________|___________________________________________

List of Abbreviations

an+uttaraṃ puñña+kkhettaṃ    lokassa   ti
|           |          |           |               |          |
neg.  Adj.n.  N.n.      N.n.         N.m.   part.
|     Nom.Sg.    |      Nom.Sg.   Gen.Sg.   |
|______|          |______|               |          |
     |____________|                     |          |
                |__________________|          |
__________________|_______________|



Vocabulary and Grammar:
List of Abbreviations

supaṭipannosupaṭipanna-, Adj.: have well followed. The word paṭipanna (followed) is a p.p. of the verb pad- (to go) with the prefix paṭi- (towards). The prefix su- means "well".
Nom.Sg.m. of the compound = supaṭipanno.

bhagavatobhagavant-, N.m.: Blessed One (epithet of the Buddha, possessive form of the word bhaga-, N.m.: good fortune, happiness, prosperity. Bhaga- is derived from the verb root bhaj-, to share. Thus bhagavant means literally "having good fortune").
Gen.Sg. = bhagavato: Of the Blessed One.

sāvakasaṅghosāvakasaṅgha-, N.m.: community of the disciples. A compound of:
    sāvaka-, N.m.: disciple. Derived form the verb su- (to listen, to hear).
    saṅgha-, N.m.: community. The community of the Buddha's followers. It is of two kinds: the saṅgha of lay followers and the saṅgha of monks and nuns.
Nom.Sg. of the compound = sāvakasaṅgho.

List of Abbreviations

ujupaṭipannoujupaṭipanna-, Adj.: have followed the straight [path]. A compound of:
    uju-, Adj.: straight.
    paṭipanna-, Adj.: see above.
Nom.Sg.m. of the compound = ujupaṭipanno.

ñāyapaṭipannoñāyapaṭipanna-, Adj.: have followed the method. A compound of:
    ñāya-, N.m.: method, way, logic.
    paṭipanna-, Adj.: see above.
Nom.Sg.m. of the compound = ñāyapaṭipanno.

sāmīcipaṭipannosāmīcipaṭipanna-, Adj.: correct in life.
    sāmīci-, Adj.: proper, right.
    paṭipanna-, Adj.: see above.
Nom.Sg.m. = sāmīcipaṭipanno.

List of Abbreviations

yadidaṃ, Adv.: that is, which is, as follows. A compound of:
    yad-, Rel.Pron.n.: that, which.
    idaṃ, Pron.n.: that.

cattāricatur-, Num.: four. Nom.n.: cattāri.

purisayugānipurisayuga-, N.n.: pair of people. A compound of:
    purisa-, N.m.: man, person.
    yuga-, N.n.: pair, couple.
Nom.Pl. = purisayugāni.

aṭṭhaaṭṭha-, Num.: eight. Nom.n.: aṭṭha.

List of Abbreviations

purisapuggalāpurisapuggala-, N.m.: human character. A compound of:
    purisa-, N.m.: person, man.
    puggala-, N.m.: person, character.
Nom.Pl. = purisapuggalā.

esaetad-, Pron.: this. Nom.Sg.m. = eso (or sometimes, as here, esa).

bhagavato: see above.

sāvakasaṅghosāvakasaṅgha-, N.m.: see above.

āhuneyyoāhuneyya-, Adj.: worthy of offerings. A ger. of the verb hu- (to offer, to sacrifice) with the prefix ā- (towards). Nom.Sg.m. = āhuneyyo.

List of Abbreviations

pāhuneyyopāhuneyya-, Adj.: worthy of hospitality. A ger. of the verb hu- (to ofer, to sacrifice) with the prefixes pa- (strengthening) and ā- (towards). The related noun pāhuna-, N.m.: guest.
Nom.Sg.m. = pāhunneyyo.

dakkhiṇeyyodakkhiṇeyya-, Adj.: worthy of gifts. A ger. of a verb dakkhiṇāti (to give gifts). This verb is derived from the word dakkhiṇā-, N.f.: gift, fee, donation.
Nom.Sg.m. = dakkhiṇeyyo.

añjalikaraṇiyoañjalikaraṇiya-, Adj.: worthy of salutation. A compound of:
    añjali-, N.m.: reverence, salutation (denoting the palms of hands placed side by side and raised to the head).
    karaṇiya-, Adj.: should be done. A ger. of the verb kar- (to do).
Nom.Sg.m. = añjalikaraṇiyo.

List of Abbreviations

anuttaraṃanuttara-, Adj.: highest. Literally: "to which there is no higher". It is composed of the word uttara- (uttara-, Adj.: higher) which is preceded by the negative prefix an-.
Nom.Sg.n. = anuttaraṃ.

puññakkhettaṃpuññakhetta-, N.n.: the field for [obtaining] merit. It is a compound of:
    puñña-, N.n.: merit, meritorious action.
    khetta-, N.n.: field, site, place.
Nom.Sg. = puññakhettaṃ.

lokassa: loka-, N.m.: world. Gen.Sg. = lokassa.

ti, part.: (sometimes written as iti) usually a particle, symbolizing the end of direct speech (in English that is expressed by quotation marks). The form that we see in the text (lokassā 'ti) is thanks to the euphonic combination (lokassa + iti or ti = lokassā 'ti).

List of Abbreviations

    From syntactical point of view, this gatha actually consists of several isolated sentences. First four of them are:

1) supaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho (The community of disciples of the Blessed One has well followed [the teaching]),
2) ujupaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho (The community of disciples of the Blessed One has followed the straight [path]),
3) ñāyapaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho (The community of disciples of the Blessed One has followed the methodical [path]),
4) sāmīcipaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho (The community of disciples of the Blessed One has followed the correct [conduct in life]),

    As their structure is identical, we will deal with them at the same time. The subject is sāvakasaṅgho (The community of disciples). It is in nominative singular. The verb is omitted (the verb to be is implied). The subject has two attributes: bhagavato (of the Blessed One, genitive singular) is the main attribute and four different secondary attributes are attached to this phrase. They are supaṭipanno, supaṭipanno, ñāyapaṭipanno and sāmīcipaṭipanno respectively. They are in nominative singular.

    Next sentence is yadidaṃ cattāri purisayugāni aṭṭha purisapuggalā. The sentence is introduced by the compound adverb yadidaṃ (namely). There are two subjects: purisayugāni (four pairs of people, nominative plural) and purisapuggalā (eight human characters, nominative plural). They both have a numeral cattāri (four) and aṭṭha (eight) as attributes respectively.

    Sixth sentence is esa bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho. The subject here is esa (this, nominative singular). It has as a predicate the word sāvakasaṅgho (The community of disciples, nominative singular), which has the word bhagavato (of the Blessed One, genitive singular) as an attribute.

    Next is a collection of four attributes -- āhuneyyo (worthy of offerings), pāhuneyyo (worthy of hospitality), dakkhiṇeyyo (worthy of gifts) and añjalikaraṇiyo (worthy of salutation) -- without a subject or a verb. They can be seen as attributes to the word sāvakasaṅgho (The community of disciples) from the previous sentence. They agree with it (they are in nominative singular).

    Last sentence is anuttaraṃ puññakkhettaṃ lokassa. Here the subject is again the word sāvakasaṅgho (The community of disciples) from the sixth sentence. The verb to be is omitted. The predicate is puññakkhettaṃ (field of merit), in nominative singular. It has an attribute anuttaraṃ (highest), which agrees with it in case, gender and number. The word lokassa (of the world) then constitutes an attribute to this predicate. It is in genitive singular.

    The particle ti marks the end of the list of attributes.



Commentary:

    Here we find enumerated the qualities of the Sangha, the community of Buddha's disciples. This is the final one of the "Three Gems", or "Three refuges" of the Buddhism.

    The community has well followed the path to the deliverance that was taught by the Buddha (supaṭipanno).

    The community is following the straight path (ujupaṭipanno). This path leads directly to the goal, it is not a labyrinth, it is clearly pointed out. There are no dead ends or bends.

    The community is on a methodical (or logical) path (ñāyapaṭipanno). Each step on this path is well explained, there is a method and internal logic in every and each of the sections on this way.

    The community is correct in conduct (sāmīcipaṭipanno). The rules for the followers have been laid down in the Vinaya, the Code of Conduct, and every Buddha's follower is expected to live up to high standard of this treatise.

    In the Sangha, there are " four pairs of people" (cattāri purisayugāni) and "eight individual human characters" (aṭṭha purisapuggalā). By four pairs of people the text means the followers who have reached one of the four stages on the way to the awakenment. First is sotāpatti (entering the stream), the first glimpse of Nirvana and breaking of some fetters binding us to the round of rebirth. Then comes sakadāgāmitā (the state of a "once-returner"), next stage on the path -- those who have reached this stage will be born only once in this world. Next is anāgāmitā (the state of a "non-returner"), after reaching this stage the practitioner will not be born again in this world, but will (if not reaching the goal in this life) be born in some higher world, finishing his practice there and reaching the goal. Last is arahatta (the state of an arahant), the final goal of Buddhism, purification of mind and breaking of the round of rebirth. So these are the four stages on the path and the practitioners are divided into those, who are on the path to one of them or those who have reached the fruit of them. So there are four pairs of people (on the path to sotāpatti + reaching the fruit of it etc.). Or, in other words, these are eight individual human characters.

    Such is the Community of Buddha's disciples.

    It is worthy of offerings (āhuneyyo), because of its qualities. The offerings (mainly food and medicine) given to the Sangha are meritorious deeds.

    It is also worthy of hospitality (pāhuneyyo). Giving shelter and caring in sickness for monks and nuns is a good practice of generosity.

    It is worthy of gifts (dakkhiṇeyyo). Again, giving any gifts (allowed in Vinaya) -- food, drinks, shelter, clothes, medicine etc. -- does not only bring merit to the giver, but also serves as a practice of generosity.

    It is worthy of salutation (añjalikaraṇiyo). Because of all these qualities, the Sangha is a good object of veneration, a good example to follow. To pay homage to the Sangha is also paying homage to the Buddha and his teaching, the Dhamma.

    It is the unsurpassed field of merit for the world (anuttaraṃ puññakkhettaṃ lokassa). The merit obtained by caring for needs of the community of Buddha's disciples is the highest and unsurpassed merit in the world. If anyone wants to "reap" rewards for his actions, the Sangha is always the best "field" to come to.


Gatha 6 - blessing

Gāthā Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation

List of Abbreviations


etena saccavajjena sotthi te hotu sabbadā

etena saccavajjena hotu te jayamaṅgalaṃ

etena saccavajjena sabbarogo vinassatu



Translation:

By [the power of] this true speech, may you be always blessed.
By [the power of] this true speech, may you have victory and luck.
By [the power of] this true speech, may all illness be destroyed.



Sentence Structure:
List of Abbreviations

etena    sacca+vajjena     sotthi         te           hotu     sabbadā
|              |           |              |             |               |             |
Pron.n.  N.n.    N.n.        N.f.        Pron.       V.act.     Adv.
Ins.Sg.     |      Ins.Sg.   Nom.Sg.   Dat.Sg.   3.Sg.imp.     |
|              |______|              |_______|_________|            |
|___________|                                 |____|                     |
          |__________________________|                          |
                               |_____________________________|

List of Abbreviations

etena     sacca+vajjena  hotu           te      jaya+maṅgalaṃ
|               |          |           |               |         |            |
Pron.n.  N.n.    N.n.     V.act.       Pron.  N.m.     N.n.
Ins.Sg.     |     Ins.Sg.  3.Sg.imp.  Dat.Sg.    |      Nom.Sg.
|              |______|            |              |         |_______|
|___________|                 |________|_________|
          |                                 |_____|
          |_____________________|

List of Abbreviations

etena     sacca+vajjena  sabba+rogo       vinassatu
|                |         |            |        |                |
Pron.n.  N.n.    N.n.      Adj    N.m.        V.act.
Ins.Sg.      |     Ins.Sg.       |   Nom.Sg.   3.Sg.imp.
|               |_____|             |____|                 |
|___________|                       |___________|
           |________________________|



Vocabulary and Grammar:
List of Abbreviations

etenaetad-, Pron.: this. Ins.Sg. = etena.

saccavajjenasaccavajja-, N.n.: truthfulness, true speech. A compound of:
    sacca-, N.n.: truth.
    vajja-, N.n.: speech, what is to be said. A gerundive of the verb vad- (to say).
Ins.Sg. = saccavajjena.

sotthisotthi-, N.f.: safety, blessing, well-being. Nom.Sg. = sotthi.

tetvam-, Pron.: you. Dat.Sg. = tava (to you). Short form = te.

hotu, V.: let be. The verb bhū- (to be). 3.Sg.act.imp. = hotu.

List of Abbreviations

sabbadā, Adv,: always.

jayamaṅgalaṃjayamaṅgala-, N.n.: victory and luck. A compound of:
    jaya-, N.m.: conquest, victory.
    maṅgala-, N.n.: fortune, auspice, luck.
Nom.Sg. = jayamaṅgalaṃ.

sabbarogosabbaroga-, N.m.: all illness. A compound of:
    sabba-, Adj.: whole, entire.
    roga-, N.m.; illness, sickness.
Nom.Sg. = sabbarogo.

vinassatu, V.: let perish, let be destroyed. The verb nas- (to perish) with the prefix vi- (prefix of separation). 3.Sg.act.imp. = vinassatu.

List of Abbreviations

    The three lines form three separate sentences.

    The first of them has as a subject the word sotthi (blessing, nominative singular). The verb is hotu (let be, 3rd singular, active, imperative). The verb has three attributes. One is te (to you, dative singular) and the second one is saccavajjena (by true speech, instrumental singular). This word has its own attribute -- etena (by this, instrumental singular). The adverb sabbadā (always) is the third attribute.

    The second sentence has as a subject the word jayamaṅgalaṃ (victory and luck, nominative singular). The verb is again hotu (as above). The word te (to you, as above) is again one of verb's attributes. Another one is saccavajjena with its own attribute etena (both as above).

    In the last sentence, the subject is sabbarogo (all illness, nominative singular). The verb is vinassatu (3rd singular, active, imperative). The verb has an attribute -- the word saccavajjena with its own attribute etena (both as above).



Commentary:

    The monks always dedicate this wishing to the lay community after the finished ceremony. Because reciting the Buddha's words is True Speech (saccavajja), it brings merit to the people doing the reciting. The monks the give up their share of merit and give it all to the lay followers. They wish them blessing both in their daily lives and on the path to the deliverance. They wish them victory (over obstacles on the path to awakenment) and luck. The also wish them the end of all illnesses, may they be physical or mental.

Những tập kinh khác:

Vandana

List of Abbreviations

Dhammapada 1 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 2 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 3 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 4 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 5 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 6 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 7 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 8 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 9 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 10 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 11 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 12 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 13 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 14 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 15 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 16 – Grammatical Analysis

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