Lesson 3: Some Defectives (Vikala) and Anomalous Verbs (Uppatipātika) [Pāḷi Made Easy]

Wednesday April 19, 2023

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Part 1️⃣: Defective (Vikala)

Part 2️⃣: Anomolous (Uppatipātika) 

Part 3️⃣: Vocabularies and Exercise

 

Part 1️⃣: Defective (Vikala)

Root: as (to tobe)

1st

asmi, amhi

(I am)

asma, amha

(We are)

2nd

asi

(you are)

attha

(you are)

3rd

atthi

(he is) – (there is)

santi

(they are)

 

  • It is defective so the base cannot be defined.
  • This root cannot be declined in progressive tense.

 

Part 2️⃣: Anomolous (Uppatipātika)

Root: brū (to say)[1]

1st

brūmi
 (I say)

brūma
(We say)

2nd

brūsi
(you say)

brūtha
(you say)

3rd

brūti
(he says)

brūvanti
(they say)

 *√brū + anti =brūvanti: 2 vowels cannot be combined; a consonant should in inserted between then; v is inserted since it is in the same group with u.

 

Root: han (to hurt, to kill)[2] => base: hana

1st

hanāmi
( I kill)

hanāma
(We kill)

2nd

hanasi
(you kill)

hanatha
(you kill)

3rd

Hanati, hanti (*)
(he kills)

hananti
(they kill)

(*) √han + a + ti; a is dropped => hanti.

 

Part 3️⃣: Vocabularies and Exercise

(A) Translate into Pāḷi

English

Pāḷi

Root + Suffix(conj. sign) + Termination

I am

asmi/ amhi

√as + mi

 

You kill

hanasi/ hanatha

√han + a + si/tha

 

They hear

suṇanti

√su + ṇā  + nti

 

He heaps up

chādeti

√chad + e + ti

 

They say

brūvanti

√brū + anti

 

We are

asma/amha

√as + ma

 

We are making

karoma

√kar + o + ma

 

We are running

dhāvāma

√dhāv + a  + ma

 

He is there

atthi

√as + ti

 

They are

santi

√as + anti

 

You say

brūsi/brūtha

√brū + si/tha

 

You do kill

hanasi/hanatha

√han + a + si/tha

 

 

(B) Translate into English

Pāḷi

English

Root + Suffix (conj. sign) + termination

brūma

We say

√brū + ma

 

hanti

He kills

√han + a + ti > hana + ti > hanti

 

Hanati

He kills

√han + a + ti

 

tanoma

We spread

√tan + o + ma

 

āgacchāma

We go

ā + √gam > gacch + a   + ma

 

hanasi

You kill

√han + a + si

 

asmi

I am

√as + mi

 

asi

You are

√as + si

 

attha

You  are

√as + tha

 

amha

We are

√as + ma

 

___________________

[1] Synonyms: vadati, katheti, udīreti, brūti

[2] = māreti, ghāteti

Những tập kinh khác:

Pāḷi Made Easy – Ebook and Introduction

Lesson 1: Verbs – Present Tense (Indicative Mood) [Pāḷi Made Easy]

Lesson 2: Verbs (Contd.) [Pāḷi Made Easy]

Lesson 3: Some Defectives (Vikala) and Anomalous Verbs (Uppatipātika) [Pāḷi Made Easy]

Lesson 4: Personal Pronouns (Their Nominatives Forms) – [Pāḷi Made Easy]

Lesson 5: Future Tense – [Pāḷi Made Easy]

Lesson 6: Imperative Mood – [Pāḷi Made Easy]

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