Lesson 1: Verbs – Present Tense (Indicative Mood) [Pāḷi Made Easy]

Tuesday April 18, 2023

⬇⬇ Download PDF book here: https://bit.ly/3d2qpJD

1️⃣Part 1: Verbal terminations

2️⃣Part 2: Vocabularies and Exercise

 

Part 1: Verbal terminations

1st

-mi
dhāvāmi (i run)

-ma
dhāvāma (we run)

2nd

-si
dhāvasi (you run)

-tha
dhāvatha (you run)

3rd

-ti
dhāvati (he runs)

-(a)nti
dhāvanti (they run)

 

?✍? NOTE:

✍ There are 6 types of terminations; for the terminations mi and ma, the ending vowel of the base must be lengthened.

✍ These terminations can be used in:

       + present tense
       + present continuous tense.

Verbal base = root[1] + suffix

✍In Pāḷi, present tense generally states a happening or action that occurs at the present moment; this tense is also used to express a happening common to all times.

3 ways of translations: EX: dhāvāmi

       = I do run.
       = I run.
       = I am running.

✍To get the verbal base, we remove the termination of the verb.

 

Part 2: Vocabularies and Exercise

(a) Find out the base of the following verbs:

Verb

Prefix

Root

Suffix

Base

Termination

Others

vasati (he dwells)

 

vas

a

vasa

ti

= vasati

gacchati (he goes)

 

gam

a

gama > gaccha

ti

= gacchati

tiṭṭhati (he stands)

 

√ṭhā

a

ṭhā + a > tiṭṭha

ti

= tiṭṭhati

uṭṭhahati (he gets up)

u

√ṭhā

a

u + ṭhā + (ha) + a > uṭṭhaha

ti

= uṭṭhahati

uttiṭṭhati (he stands up)

u

√ṭhā

a

u + ṭhā + a > u + tiṭṭha

ti

= uttiṭṭhati

Nisīdati (he sits)

NI

√sīd / sada

a

nisīda

ti

= nisīdati

Āgacchati (he comes)

ā

√gam

a

āgama > āgaccha

ti

= āgacchati

Sayati (he lies down)

 

√sī

a

Sī + a > saya

ti

= sayati

Apagacchati (he goes away)

apa

√gam

a

Apagama > apagaccha

ti

= apagacchati

 

(b) Translate into English

Verb

Prefix

Root

Suffix

Base

Termination

Others

Uttiṭṭhāmi

u

ṭhā

a

u + ṭhā + a > utiṭṭha

mi

I stand up

vasasi

 

vas

a

vasa

si

You live

Tiṭṭhanti

 

ṭhā

a

ṭhā + a > tiṭṭha

nti

We stand

gacchāma

 

gam

a

gam + a > gama > gaccha

ma

We go

sayatha

 

a

Sī + a > saya

tha

You lie down

apagacchāmi

apa

gam

a

Apagama > apagaccha

mi

I go away

vasati

 

vas

a

vasa

ti

He lives

Sayanti

 

a

Sī + a > saya

nti

We lie down

 

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[1] There are 2 types of root in Pāḷi:
   + ekasara – one-vowel root: dā, ni
   + anekasara – two-vowel root: kara, sara

Những tập kinh khác:

Pāḷi Made Easy – Ebook and Introduction

Lesson 1: Verbs – Present Tense (Indicative Mood) [Pāḷi Made Easy]

Lesson 2: Verbs (Contd.) [Pāḷi Made Easy]

Lesson 3: Some Defectives (Vikala) and Anomalous Verbs (Uppatipātika) [Pāḷi Made Easy]

Lesson 4: Personal Pronouns (Their Nominatives Forms) – [Pāḷi Made Easy]

Lesson 5: Future Tense – [Pāḷi Made Easy]

Lesson 6: Imperative Mood – [Pāḷi Made Easy]

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