Dhammapada 15 – Grammatical Analysis

Thursday April 27, 2023

Dhammapada 15

Source: buddhism.lib.ntu.edu.tw/


Gāthā Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation

List of Abbreviations


idha socati pecca socati pāpakārī ubhayattha socati

so socati so vihaññati disvā kammakiliṭṭham attano

(DhP 15)


He grieves here, he grieves after death, in both states does the wrongdoer grieve.
He grieves, he is vexed, having seen his own evil deeds.

Sentence Structure

List of Abbreviations

idha       socati    pecca     socati    pāpa+kārī ubhayattha  socati
|                |           |             |           |        |            |             |
Adv.   V.act.in.  V.ger.   V.act.in.  N.n.   N.m.    Adv.     V.act.in.
|         3.Sg.pres.    |      3.Sg.pres.    |    Nom.Sg.    |       3.Sg.pres.
|_________|           |_______|           |_____|           |_______|
        |_______________|                      |_____________|

List of Abbreviations

so             socati           so         vihaññati   disvā kamma+kiliṭṭham attano
|                   |                |                 |             |         |           |            |
Pron.m.  V.act.in.    Pron.m.     V.act.in.   V.ger.   N.n.   Adj.m.    N.m.
Nom.Sg. 3.Sg.pres. Nom.Sg.    3.Sg.pres.      |         |     Acc.Sg.  Gen.Sg.
|__________|                 |_________|             |         |______|             |
        |____________________|                      |             |___________|
                          |                                         |______________|

Vocabulary and Grammar

List of Abbreviations

idha, Adv.: here, in this world.

socati,V.: to mourn, to grieve. The verb root suc-. 3.Sg.act.in.pres. = socati.

pecca, V.: after death. It is a ger. of the verb i- (to go) with the prefix pa- (directional prefix of forward motion). This verb means literally "to go over", it is used as an euphemism for "to die".

pāpakārīpāpakārin-, N.m.: wrong-doer. A compound of:
    pāpa-, N.n.: evil, wrong doing.
    kārin-, N.m.: doer. Derived (by adding the possessive suffix -in) from the word kāra-, N.m.: act, action (this derived from the verb kar-, to do).
Nom.Sg. = pāpakārī.

List of Abbreviations

ubhayattha, Adv.: in both cases.

sotad-, pron.: it. Masculine form: so. Nom.Sg. = so.

vihaññati, V.: to be struck (with grief), to be vexed, to be grieved. It is a passive of the verb han- (to strike) with the prefix vi- (adding emphasis). 3.Sg.pas.in.pres. = vihaññati.

disvā, V.: having seen. A ger. from the verb dis-, to see.

kammakiliṭṭhamkammakiliṭṭha-, N.n.: bad deed, evil deed. A compound of:
    kamma-, N.n.: deed, action. Derived from the verb kar- (to do).
    kiliṭṭha-, Adj.: bad, impure, unclean. It is a p.p. of the verb kilis- (to go bad, to get stained, to be impure).
Acc.Sg. = kammakiliṭṭham.

attanoattan-, N.m.: self. Gen.Sg. = attano (one's own).

List of Abbreviations

    The first line consists of loosely connected sentences. They are:

    1) idha socati ([the wrongdoer] grieves here). Here the subject is omitted (it is the word pāpakārī from the third sentence). The verb socati (grieves) is in 3rd person singular, present tense, active voice, indicative. The adverb idha (here) is an attribute to the verb.

    2) pecca socati ([the wrongdoer] grieves after death). Again, the subject is the word pāpakārī from the following sentence. The verb is socati (as above). The gerund pecca (having gone) is an attribute to the verb.

    3) pāpakārī ubhayattha socati (the wrongdoer grieves in both states). The subject of this sentence (and of the two previous ones) is the word pāpakārī (wrongdoer). It is in nominative singular. The verb is socati (explained above). The adverb ubhayattha (in both places) serves as an attribute to the verb.

    The second line consists of two segments:

    1) so socati so vihaññati (he grieves, he is vexed). These two sentences are paratactic. They bot have the word so (he, nominative singular) as a subject and verbs socati (grieves, 3rd person singular, present tense, active voice, indicative) and vihaññati (is vexed, 3rd person singular, present tense, active voice, indicative) respectively.

    2) disvā kammakiliṭṭham attano (having seen his own evil deeds). This clause is subordinated to the previous one. It is introduced by the verb disvā (having seen, gerund). The word kammakiliṭṭham (evil deeds, accusative singular) forms an object. The word attano (one's own, genitive singular) is an attribute to the object.


    Doing evil deeds is a sure way to grief and despair. As we know from modern history, the greatest evildoers of this century (Stalin, Mao, Hitler, etc.) did not have an easy life. Their were troubled personalities, seeing enemies behind every shadow. The amount of evil they created hunted them mercilessly and efficiently.

    If we commit an evil deed (a definition of evil deed is that it is an action which harms other living beings in any way -- physical or mental) not only our consciences bothers us (or at least it should, if we are to call ourselves human beings), but it will also bring us a bad rebirth. Thus, when we see our evil deeds, we will grieve both in this life and in the next one.

Sentence pronunciation

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List of Abbreviations

Dhammapada 1 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 2 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 3 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 4 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 5 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 6 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 7 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 8 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 9 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 10 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 11 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 12 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 13 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 14 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 15 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 16 – Grammatical Analysis

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