Dhammapada 13 – Grammatical Analysis

Tuesday April 25, 2023

Dhammapada 13

Source: buddhism.lib.ntu.edu.tw/

 

Gāthā Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation

List of Abbreviations

Gāthā

yathā agāraṃ ducchannaṃ vuṭṭhi samativijjhati

evaṃ abhāvitaṃ cittaṃ rāgo samativijjhati

(DhP 13)


Translation

As a poorly covered house is penetrated by a rain,
thus an undeveloped mind is penetrated by passion.


Sentence Structure


List of Abbreviations

yathā       agāraṃ du+cchannaṃ vuṭṭhi   samativijjhati
|                   |        |          |            |               |
Rel.Adv.    N.n.   pref.  Adj.n.     N.f.       V.act.in.
|              Acc.Sg.  |     Acc.Sg.  Nom.Sg.  3.Sg.pres.
|                   |        |_____|             |________|
|                   |_______|                          |
|                          |__________________|
|_______________________|
                  |___________________________________________________

List of Abbreviations

evaṃ   a+bhāvitaṃ   cittaṃ       rāgo   samativijjhati
|           |         |             |             |                |
Adv.  neg.   Adj.n.     N.n.       N.m.      V.act.in.
|           |     Acc.Sg.  Acc.Sg.  Nom.Sg.  3.Sg.pres.
|           |_____|             |             |_________|
|                |__________|                     |
|                         |_________________|
|______________________|
___________|


Vocabulary and Grammar


List of Abbreviations

yathā, Rel.Adv.: as, just like.

agāraṃagāra-, N.n.: house, home. Ac.Sg. = agāraṃ.

ducchannaṃducchanna-, Adj.: badly covered. It is a p.p. of the verb chad- (channa) with the prefix du- (bad). Acc.Sg.n. = ducchannaṃ.

vuṭṭhivuṭṭhi-, N.f.: rain. Nom.Sg. = vuṭṭhi.

samativijjhati, V.: to penetrate. The verb vidh- (to pierce, to perforate) with prefixes sam- (altogether) and ati- (above, extremely). 3.Sg.act.in.pres. = samativijjhati.

List of Abbreviations

evaṃ, Adv.: thus

abhāvitaṃabhāvita-, Adj.: undeveloped. It is a p.p. of the verb bhāveti (to develop, to meditate) with the negative prefix a-. Acc.Sg.n. = abhāvitaṃ.

cittaṃcitta-, N.n.: mind. Acc.Sg. = cittaṃ.

rāgo: rāga-, N.m.: passion. Nom.Sg. = rāgo.

samativijjhati, V.: see above

List of Abbreviations

    Two lines of this verse form two sentences, which are both parts of one compound sentence.

    First one is yathā agāraṃ ducchannaṃ vuṭṭhi samativijjhati (as a poorly covered house is penetrated by a rain). Here the subject is vuṭṭhi (rain, nominative singular). The verb is samativijjhati (penetrates, 3rd person singular, active, indicative, present tense). The object is agāraṃ (the house, accusative singular). This word has one attribute ducchannaṃ (poorly covered, accusative singular, it agrees with the main object). The relative clause yathā (like, as) connects this sentence to the following one (in a pattern yathā... - evaṃ...).

    The second part is evaṃ abhāvitaṃ cittaṃ rāgo samativijjhati (thus an undeveloped mind is penetrated by passion). The subject is rāgo (passion, nominative singular). The verb is samativijjhati (penetrates, 3rd person singular, active, indicative, present tense). The object is cittaṃ (the mind, accusative singular). This word has one attribute -- abhāvitaṃ (undeveloped, accusative singular, it agrees with the main object). The adverb evaṃ (thus) connects this sentence to the previous one.


Commentary

    A roof is the most important part of any house. If the roof is not well done, if we try to "cheat" and use cheap material of poor quality, we can be surprised when a strong rain comes. The roof will not be able to hold off the water and it will leak. Everything inside the house then becomes wet instantly - and after the rain we can start building again.

    In the same way, the mind is the most important part of the human being. If it is not "well developed", if we have not practiced meditation earnestly, it will also "leak". The passions, hatred and other stuff will enter our mind and make it difficult for us to purify our minds. After one such "rain" we can start "rebuilding" our mind again.


Sentence pronunciation

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Những tập kinh khác:

Vandana

List of Abbreviations

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Dhammapada 2 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 3 – Grammatical Analysis

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Dhammapada 5 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 6 – Grammatical Analysis

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Dhammapada 8 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 9 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 10 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 11 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 12 – Grammatical Analysis

Dhammapada 13 – Grammatical Analysis

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